The window system rio serves a variety of files for reading, writing,
and controlling windows. Some of them are virtual versions of
system files for dealing with the display, keyboard, and mouse;
others control operations of the window system itself. Rio posts
its service in the /srv directory, using a name constructed
from a catenation of the user ID and a process id; the environment
variable $wsys is set to this service name within processes running
under the control of each invocation of rio. Similarly, rio posts
a named pipe to access the window creation features (see window
in rio(1)) from outside its name space; this is named
A mount (see bind(1)) of $wsys causes rio to create a new window;
the attach specifier in the mount gives the coordinates of the
created window. The syntax of the specifier is the same as the
arguments to window (see rio(1)). By default, the window is sized
and placed automatically. It is always necessary, however,
to provide the process id of the process to whom to deliver notes
generated by DEL characters and hangups in that window. That pid
is specified by including the string –pid pid in the attach specifier.
(See the Examples section q.v.)
When a window is created either by the window command (see rio(1))
or by using the menu supplied by rio, this server is mounted on
/mnt/wsys and also /dev; the files mentioned here appear in both
Some of these files supply virtual versions of services available
from the underlying environment, in particular the character terminal
files cons(3), and the mouse files mouse(3) and cursor, each specific
to the window. Note that the draw(3) device multiplexes itself;
rio places windows but does not mediate programs'
access to the display device.
Other files are unique to rio.
cons is a virtual version of the standard terminal file cons(3).
Rio supplies extra editing features and a scroll bar (see rio(1)).
consctlcontrols interpretation of keyboard input. Writing strings
to it sets these modes: rawon turns on raw mode; rawoff turns
off raw mode; holdon turns on hold mode; holdoff turns off hold
mode. Closing the file makes the window revert to default state
(raw off, hold off).
cursor Like mouse (q.v.), a multiplexed version of the underlying
device file, in this case representing the appearance of the mouse
cursor when the mouse is within the corresponding window.
label initially contains a string with the process ID of the lead
process in the window and the command being executed there. It
may be written and is used as a tag when the window is hidden.
mouse is a virtual version of the standard mouse file (see mouse(3)).
Opening it turns off scrolling, editing, and rio–supplied menus
in the associated window. In a standard mouse message, the first
character is m, but rio will send an otherwise normal message
with the first character r if the corresponding window
screen is a read–only file reporting the depth, coordinates, and
raster image corresponding to the entire underlying display, in
the uncompressed format defined in image(6).
has been resized. The application must then call getwindow (see
graphics(2)) to re–establish its state in the newly moved or changed
window. Reading the mouse file blocks until the mouse moves or
a button changes. Mouse movements or button changes are invisible
when the mouse cursor is located
outside the window, except that if the mouse leaves the window
while a button is pressed, it will continue receiving mouse data
until the button is released.
snarf returns the string currently in the snarf buffer. Writing
this file sets the contents of the snarf buffer. When rio is run
recursively, the inner instance uses the snarf buffer of the parent,
rather than managing its own.
text returns the full contents of the window. It may not be written.
wctl may be read or written. When read, it returns the location
of the window as four decimal integers formatted in the usual
12–character style: upper left x and y, lower right x and y. Following
these numbers are strings describing the window's state: hidden
or visible; current or notcurrent. A
wdir is a read/write text file containing rio's idea of the current
working directory of the process running in the window. It is
used to fill in the wdir field of plumb(6) messages rio generates
from the plumb menu item on button 2. The file is writable so
the program may update it; rio is otherwise unaware of
subsequent read will block until the window changes size, location,
or state. When written to, wctl accepts messages to change the
size or placement of the associated window, and to create new
windows. The messages are in a command–line like format, with a
command name, possibly followed by
options introduced by a minus sign. The options must be separated
by blanks, for example –dx 100 rather than –dx100.
The commands are resize (change the size and position of the window),
move (move the window), scroll (enable scrolling in the window),
noscroll (disable scrolling), set (change selected properties
of the window), top (move the window to the `top', making it fully
visible), bottom (move the
window to the `bottom', perhaps partially or totally obscuring
it), hide (hide the window), unhide (restore a hidden window),
current (make the window the recipient of keyboard and mouse input),
delete (delete the window) and new (make a new window). The top
and bottom commands do not
change whether the window is current or not; the others always
make the affected window current.
Neither top nor bottom has any options. The resize, move, and
new commands accept –minx n, –miny n, –maxx n, and –maxy n options
to set the position of the corresponding edge of the window. They
also accept an option –r minx miny maxx maxy to set all four at
once. The resize and
new commands accept –dx n and –dy n to set the width and height
of the window. By default, rio will choose a convenient geometry
Finally, the new command accepts an optional shell command and
argument string, given as plain strings after any standard options,
to run in the window instead of the default rc –i (see rc(1)).
The –pid pid option to new identifies the pid of the process whose
`note group' should receive interrupt and
hangup notes generated in the window. The initial working directory
of the new window may be set by a –cd directory option. The –hide
option causes the window to be created off–screen, in the hidden
state, while –scroll and –noscroll set the initial scrolling state
of the window; the default is
that of the main program.
The set command accepts a set of parameters in the same style;
only –pid pid is implemented.
So programs outside name spaces controlled by rio may create windows,
wctl new messages may also be written to the named pipe identified
winid returns the unique and unchangeable ID for the window; it
is a string of digits.
chdir(2) calls its clients make. In particular, rc(1) maintains
/dev/wdir in default rio(1) windows.
window is the virtual version of /dev/screen. It contains the depth,
coordinates, and uncompressed raster image corresponding to the
wsys is a directory containing a subdirectory for each window,
named by the unique ID for that window. Within each subdirectory
are entries corresponding to several of the special files associated
with that window: cons, consctl, label, mouse, etc.