ms – macros for formatting manuscripts

nroff –ms [ options ] file ...
troff –ms [ options ] file ...

This package of nroff and troff(1) macro definitions provides a canned formatting facility for technical papers in various formats.

The macro requests are defined below. Many nroff and troff requests are unsafe in conjunction with this package, but the following requests may be used with impunity after the first .PP: .bp, .br, .sp, .ls, .na.

Output of the eqn(1), tbl(1), pic(1) and grap(1) preprocessors for equations, tables, pictures, and graphs is acceptable as input.


M. E. Lesk, ``Typing Documents on the UNIX System: Using the –ms Macros with Troff and Nroff'', Unix Research System Programmer's Manual, Tenth Edition, Volume 2.
eqn(1), troff(1), tbl(1), pic(1)

Request    Initial Cause Explanation
Value Break
.1C       yes    yes    One column format on a new page.
.2C       no    yes    Two column format.
.AB       no    yes    Begin abstract.
.AE       –     yes    End abstract.
.AI       no    yes    Author's institution follows. Suppressed in .TM.
.AT       no    yes    Print `Attached' and turn off line filling.
.AU x y     no    yes    Author's name follows. x is location and y is extension, ignored except in TM.
.B x y z    no    no     Print x in boldface, append roman y and preface with z; if no argument switch to boldface.
.B1       no    yes    Begin text to be enclosed in a box.
.B2       no    yes    End boxed text.
.BI x y z no    no     Print x in bold italic, append roman y and preface with z; if no argument switch to bold italic.
.BT       date no     Bottom title, automatically invoked at foot of page. May be redefined.
.BX x      no    no     Print x in a box.
.CW x y z no    no     Constant width font for x, append roman y and preface with z; if no argument switch to constant width.
.CT       no    yes    Print `Copies to' and turn off line filling.
.DA x      nroff no     `Date line' at bottom of page is x. Default is today.
.DE       –     yes    End displayed text. Implies .KE.
.DS x      no    yes    Start of displayed text, to appear verbatim line–by–line: I indented (default), L left–justified, C centered, B (block) centered with straight left margin. Implies .KS.
.EG       no    –      Print document in BTL format for `Engineer's Notes.' Must be first.
.EN       –     yes    Space after equation produced by neqn or eqn(1).
.EQ x y     –     yes    Display equation. Equation number is y. Optional x is I, L, C as in .DS.
.FE       –     yes    End footnote.
.FP x      –     no     Set font positions for a family, e.g., .FP lucidasans
no    no     Start footnote. The note will be moved to the bottom of the page.
.HO       –     no     `Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, New Jersey 07733'.
.I x y z    no    no     Italicize x, append roman y and preface with z; if no argument switch to italic.
.IH       no    no     `Bell Laboratories, Naperville, Illinois 60540'
.IM       no    no     Print document in BTL format for an internal memorandum. Must be first.
.IP x y     no    yes    Start indented paragraph, with hanging tag x. Indentation is y ens (default 5).
.KE       –     yes    End keep. Put kept text on next page if not enough room.
.KF       no    yes    Start floating keep. If the kept text must be moved to the next page, float later text back to this page.
.KS       no    yes    Start keeping following text.
.LG       no    no     Make letters larger.
.LP       yes    yes    Start left–blocked paragraph.
.LT       no    yes    Start a letter; a non–empty first argument produces a full Lucent letterhead, a second argument is a room number, a third argument is a telephone number.
.MF       –     –      Print document in BTL format for `Memorandum for File.' Must be first.
.MH       –     no     `Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, New Jersey 07974'.
.MR       –     –      Print document in BTL format for `Memorandum for Record.' Must be first.
.ND date    troff no     Use date supplied (if any) only in special BTL format positions; omit from page footer.
.NH n      –     yes    Same as .SH, with automatic section numbers like `1.2.3'; n is subsection level (default 1). If n is 0, reset the numbering.
.NL       yes    no     Make letters normal size.
.P1       –     yes    Begin program display in constant width font.
.P2       –     yes    End program display.
.PE       –     yes    End picture; see pic(1).
.PF       –     yes    End picture; restore vertical position.
.PP       no    yes    Begin paragraph. First line indented.
.PS h w    –     yes    Start picture; height and width in inches.
.PY       –     no     `Bell Laboratories, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854'
.QE       –     yes    End quoted material.
.QP       –     yes    Begin quoted paragraph (indent both margins).
.QS       –     yes    Begin quoted material (indent both margins).
.R        yes    no     Roman text follows.
.RE       –     yes    End relative indent level.
.RP       no    –      Cover sheet and first page for released paper. Must precede other requests.
.RS       –     yes    Start level of relative indentation from which subsequent indentation is measured.
.SG x      no    yes    Insert signature(s) of author(s), ignored except in .TM and .LT. x is the reference line (initials of author and typist). .}f
.SH       –     yes    Section head follows, font automatically bold.
.SM       no    no     Make letters smaller.
.TA x...    5...    no     Set tabs in ens. Default is 5 10 15 ...
.TE       –     yes    End table; see tbl(1).
.TH       –     yes    End heading section of table.
.TL       no    yes    Title follows.
.TM x...    no    –      Print document in BTL technical memorandum format. Arguments are TM number, (quoted list of) case number(s), and file number. Must precede other requests.
.TR x      –     –      Print in BTL technical report format; report number is x. Must be first.
.TS x      –     yes    Begin table; if x is H table heading is repeated on new pages.
.UL x      –     no     Underline argument (even in troff).
.UX y z     –     no     `zUNIXy'; first use gives registered trademark notice.
.WH       –     no     `Bell Laboratories, Whippany, New Jersey 07981'.
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